How Does Race Affect the Gender Wage Gap?

April 03, 2014

 

The latest data from the U.S. Census Bureau shows miniscule changes to the wage gap for women of color. Take a look at our September 2014 blog, “By the Numbers: A Look at the Gender Pay Gap” for more information.

Race and ethnicity have always created a dividing line in the United States, and it’s no different with the gender pay gap. The pay gap affects all women, but it doesn’t affect all women equally. The latest edition of our research report, The Simple Truth about the Gender Pay Gap, presents the facts about the pay gap between women and men, showing how race and ethnicity, as well as gender, affect pay.

Race matters when it comes to the pay gap.

Race matters when it comes to the pay gap.

Asian American and white women had higher weekly take-home pay than African American and Hispanic or Latina women did in 2012, and the pattern was similar for men in these groups. The gender pay gap was smallest within the African American, Hispanic/Latina, and Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander full-time workforce. But compared with white men (the largest group in the workforce), African American and Hispanic/Latina women fare poorly. Hispanic or Latina women are paid 89 percent of what Hispanic or Latino men are paid, and only 53 percent of what white men are paid. African American women are paid 89 percent of what African American men are paid, and that number drops to 64 percent in comparison with white men.

So, you might ask (and Essence magazine did), What causes African American and Hispanic women to be paid less than white and Asian women?

Education is part of the reason. African American women are less likely to graduate from high school or college than their white peers. Lower graduation rates mean that many African American and Hispanic/Latina young people enter the workforce with one hand tied behind their backs.

figure 7 from The Simple Truth March 2014

Education helps close the pay gap, but it isn’t the whole story.

Still, while education improves take-home pay for everyone, African American and Hispanic women tend to be paid less than their white peers even when they have the same educational background. This tells us that educational background isn’t the whole story. Another possible explanation is discrimination, whether overt or implicit. Both forms of bias can affect take-home pay. In some ways, implicit bias, or bias that you are not aware of, can be especially problematic — you can learn to compensate for known biases, but you can’t overcome a problem you’re not aware of.

The gender pay gap affects all women, but for African American and Hispanic/Latina women, it is a steeper climb. Luckily, there are actions you can take to help narrow the pay gap, especially for women of color.

Visit fightforfairpay.org to learn more about the gender pay gap, how it affects you, and what you can do to take action for equal pay.

 


Related

A colorful map of the U.S. and it's states.

Hey! Why Are Women Paid Less than Men Are in My State?

You may have noticed that the gender pay gap varies — in some cases dramatically — from state to state. But do you know why?

"Would you like a 7% raise?" with cash on a serving tray.

Fight for Fair Pay

Changing the pay gap begins with you.

Cheryl Hughes headshot

7 Women Shortchanged: Personal Stories of the Gender Pay Gap

I left the employer who underpaid me long ago, but the damage done by the thousands of dollars I lost to the gender pay gap sticks with me.

102 Comments

  1. […] You might think that this treatment is history in America, but wage theft and human trafficking (slavery) endures, many families have no guaranteed parenting leave, and the wage gap between women and men persists. It’s even worse if you add in race. Latina women make 53% of what White men make, and if Sacagawea were working today, she’d still only see 60% of her “husband’s” salary. African American, White and Asian women make 64, 78 and 84% of a White man’s salary, respectively. http://www.aauw.org/2014/04/03/race-and-the-gender-wage-gap/ […]

  2. […] later in the year. For African-American and Hispanic women, the wage gap is worse, which means it takes even longer for their salaries to “equal” the salaries of their white male counterparts. White men are used as a […]

  3. […] matters, as the research from “The Simple Truth about the Gender Pay Gap” […]

  4. […] later in the year. For African-American and Hispanic women, the wage gap is worse, which means it takes even longer for their salaries to “equal” the salaries of their white male counterparts. White men are used as a […]

  5. […] what the average, full-time, male worker earns. But this statistic only refers to White women. The wage gap is far wider and deeper for women of color in the US, who face both a larger disparity in pay […]

  6. […] for African-American and Hispanic women, the wage gap is worse, which means it takes even longer for their salaries to “equal” the salaries of their white male […]

  7. […] Thankfully in watching the twitterverse and media carry this issue, I saw much of the messaging that was much more inclusive, I tweeted about several weeks ago about why inclusivity is important on this issue @shaileygb. I called out the repeated use of the the 77 cents on the $1 statistic, as it is only relevant for what white women earn compared to what white mean earn. I also pointed out that there are bigger gaps for women of color, specifically Latina women and Black women. I also stated that there are gaps between white men and men of color. Other tweets followed from @the_hfm citing statistics and specifics on the gaps. I suggested that other organizations and public figures focus on this as well to include other communities in the messaging and focus on the racism that plays a huge part in pay inequality. Many friends and organizations focused on this issue, and some even included the statistic per “recent” studies, “Asian American women make 87 cents on for each $1 white men earn.“ […]

  8. […] matters, as the research from “The Simple Truth about the Gender Pay Gap” […]

  9. […] only get harder for women of colour. When you compare the income of men and women of the same race, the men are earning more that the […]

  10. […] racism and sexism that leaves women of color disproportionately impacted by domestic violence, the gender pay gap experienced by black women, the deadly violence faced by black children and the myriad other manifestations of racism in the […]

  11. […] Black women, particularly those who aren’t white-collar professionals, experience the unfairness of unequal pay on a different level than white women who earn less than their male counterparts. While black women earn on average $599 weekly compared to $665 earned by black men, the pay gap between them is much smaller because black men’s earnings are also lower than that of white men and women. African American women are paid 89 percent of what African American men are paid, but just 64 percent of what white men are paid, according to the American Association of University Women’s (AAUW) annual report, “The Simple Truth.” […]

  12. […] to note, because agism,racism, and sexism both play a role in the wage gap, that when broken down by race the wage gap gets worse, with one exception, for women of the non-white persuasion: caucasian […]

  13. […] and Hispanic women are more likely to be raped than white women, and also earn less money than white women. Minority women, who have higher rates of poverty, are less equipped to leave abuses boyfriends, […]

  14. […] and Hispanic women are more likely to be raped than white women, and also earn less money than white women. Minority women, who have higher rates of poverty, are less equipped to leave abuses boyfriends, […]

  15. […] that sometimes, yes, you do have to think about things in a multidimensional fashion. For example, when we talk about the wage gap between genders, it’s important to note that black women, Latinas, Native American women, and […]

  16. […] look at black women, those numbers are even more stark with African American females making just 64% of a white man’s […]

  17. […] oppressor. It almost feels like a perfect metaphor for the struggle of modern-day women of color, who make less than their white or male counterparts and are expected to stay quiet about it, not that it’s an issue anymore in this zombie-ridden […]

  18. […] just allowed but encouraged to keep their own last names in marriage. Across the board, they make higher wages than women of their same race. In general, sexism harms women much more than it harms men, which is […]

  19. […] about this. When the black race is consistently paid a lower wage, when they are consistently at the end of skewed laws, and when […]

  20. […] In 2012, women who were employed full-time earned 77 cents for every dollar earned by a man. Accounting for race, black women only earn 64 cents to every white man’s dollar; Latinas, only 53 […]

  21. […] 2012, women who were employed full-time earned 77 cents for every dollar earned by a man. Accounting for race, black women only earn 64 cents to every white man’s dollar; Latinas, only 53 […]

  22. […] matters, as the research from “The Simple Truth about the Gender Pay Gap” […]

  23. […] families can’t afford to wonder who will stay home and raise the kids. Women of color face a much steeper wage gap than white women. When Ansari invokes Beyoncé and Jay Z as the model couple, he is speaking about […]

  24. […] families can’t afford to wonder who will stay home and raise the kids. Women of color face a much steeper wage gap than white women. When Ansari invokes Beyoncé and Jay Z as the model couple, he is speaking […]

  25. […] families can't afford to wonder who will stay home and raise the kids. Women of color face a much steeper wage gap than white women. When Ansari invokes Beyoncé and Jay Z as the model couple, he is speaking […]

  26. […] all women, she makes less money than men…as well as white and Asian women. According to the American Association of University Women, African-American women earn just 64% of what white men earn whereas white women earn 78%. Both […]

  27. […] The worse news:  that’s assuming that both hypothetical parties are white.  If you’re black or Latin, you chick might make closer to what your dudes are taking home, but that’s because “minority” males get pretty screwed as well. […]

  28. […] Feminism also deals with issues of racism (or at least it should).  Take, for example, all the statistics on the wage gap for women.  Many like to quote the 78 cents to a dollar that white women make, but the wage gaps of women of […]

  29. […] tremendous progress up through the 1990s, the gender revolution has stalled – white women still make .78 to every dollar a man makes, and black and brown women make even less tha… #GamerGate, #TeamHarpy and far too many other examples – including a Pew report released […]

  30. […] equality as a given. Nevertheless, 75% of white people don’t have friends of color, and most women of color still earn 53 to 66 cents for every white man’s dollar. In the absence of formal structures preventing women of color from fully participating […]

  31. And what actions do you propose American Association of University Women? There are no actions that can help to narrow the pay gap for Black and Latina women educated or non educated. What bullshit American Association of University Women.
    Dr. Paula Marie Seniors

  32. […] of racial privilege, even when they are disadvantaged in other ways. White women, for example, consistently make more than black women, because they benefit from racial attitudes. Furthermore, you also have to have […]

  33. […] of racial privilege, even when they are disadvantaged in other ways. White women, for example, consistently make more than black women, because they benefit from racial attitudes. Furthermore, you also have to have […]

  34. […] of racial privilege, even when they are disadvantaged in other ways. White women, for example, consistently make more than black women, because they benefit from racial attitudes. Furthermore, you also have to have […]

  35. […] Care Act and access to care for low-income women. Thanks to the persistent pay gap, women still make less than men and are more likely to live in poverty, an issue even more extreme for women of color. With less […]

  36. […] the wages earned by workers, according to the AAUW, Asian-American and White women earn the highest percentage of wages compared to an average White […]

  37. […] of the Harvard Law Review, while his predecessor was an average student, or educated black women earning 64% as much as an equally qualified white man (compared to white women’s already abysmal 78%), blacks quite literally have to excel at what […]

  38. […] families can’t afford to wonder who will stay home and raise the kids. Women of color face a much steeper wage gap than white women. When Ansari invokes Beyoncé and Jay Z as the model couple, he is speaking […]

  39. […] exact numbers may vary by analysis, but here’s some data from the 2012 census that backs up the gap. According to the American Association of University […]

  40. […] also worth mentioning that women of color face a greater gender wage gap than their white counterparts. And research has shown that the same is true for trans […]

  41. […] also worth mentioning that women of color face a greater gender wage gap than their white counterparts. And research has shown that the same is true for trans […]

  42. […] also worth mentioning that women of color face a greater gender wage gap than their white counterparts. And research has shown that the same is true for trans […]

  43. […] also worth mentioning that women of color face a greater gender wage gap than their white counterparts. And research has shown that the same is true for trans […]

  44. […] also worth mentioning that women of color face a greater gender wage gap than their white counterparts. And research has shown that the same is true for trans […]

  45. […] than men. However, the pay gap for women from African-American and Hispanic backgrounds is far more pronounced than for white women. On average, white women earn 78 cents for every dollar earned by white men, compared to 64 cents […]

  46. […] In this tone-deaf comment, Arquette appeared ignorant herself of the economic and cultural disparity between women of different ethnicities. Well intentioned though she may have been, many thought the […]

  47. […] don’t know why that would come as a surprise because women on average for the same job make only 77 cents for every dollar a man earns. And for African American women, it’s 64 cents. And for Latina […]

  48. […] also worth mentioning that women of color face a greater gender wage gap than their white counterparts. And research has shown that the same is true for trans […]

  49. […] also worth mentioning that women of color face a greater gender wage gap than their white counterparts. And research has shown that the same is true for trans […]

  50. […] a white male makes. In comparison, black women acquire 64 cents and Latinas acquire 53 cents for that same dollar. Trans and odd girl are a many at-risk race for homelessness. “If we wish to have a review about […]

  51. […] a wage gap for women compared with white men, but it gets even worse for women of color. According to data from the American Association of University Women, Latina women make 53 cents for every dollar a […]

  52. […] seems very wrong. While women as a whole make 77.5% less than men in the US, this figure drops to 64% for black women and 53% for Hispanic and Latina women. One in four lesbian and bisexual women live in poverty, compared to one in five heterosexual […]

  53. […] seems very wrong. While women as a whole make 77.5% less than men in the US, this figure drops to 64% for black women and 53% for Hispanic and Latina women. One in four lesbian and bisexual women live in poverty, compared to one in five heterosexual […]

  54. […] appeal conveniently ignored the fact that black women and Latinas routinely earn less, dollar for dollar, than their white peers. An analysis of Census data conducted by the American Association of University Women (AAUW) found […]

  55. […] to the American Association of University Women (AAUW), white women make 78% of what white men earn. By now, that statistic is common knowledge. But let’s explore some […]

  56. […] wage gap is worsened when you take race into account. While in the US white women earn 77 cents to every man’s dollar, African American women earn […]

  57. […] dollar a white man makes in comparison, black women earn 68 cents and Latinas earn 61 cents for that same dollar, according to the Institute for Women’s Policy […]

  58. […] groups who are often fetishized and exoticised as well as experiencing more sexual harassment and earning less than their White counterparts – who already experience more sexual harassment and earn less […]

  59. […] also value mentioning that women of tone face a larger gender salary gap than their white counterparts. And investigate has shown that a same is loyal for trans […]

  60. […] families can’t afford to wonder who will stay home and raise the kids. Women of color face a much steeper wage gap than white women. When Ansari invokes Beyoncé and Jay Z as the model couple, he is […]

  61. […] Women only make up 20% of elected officials and only 5% of CEOs of fortune 500 companies (an historic high!). And women still only make 77 cents for every dollar earned by their male counterparts – and that’s only for white people! […]

  62. […] how exactly does gender and race affect the wage gap? Well, According to the American Association of University Women, white, non-Hispanic women made just 78 cents on the […]

  63. […] because while opportunities do exist for everyone, it seems that black women, and actually, most non-white women, have to work harder to get […]

  64. […] of the Harvard Law Review, while his predecessor was an average student, or educated black women earning 64% as much as an equally qualified white man (compared to white women’s already abysmal 78%), blacks quite literally have to excel at what […]

  65. […]  And women still only make 77 cents for every dollar earned by their male counterparts – and that’s only for white people! […]

  66. […] American Association of University Women reported that in 2012, Latinas earned 53 cents for every dollar a white male earned, African […]

  67. […] just 76% of what men in the state earn, though that number varies by location within the state, race and ethnicity. The gender wage gap widens significantly more for women of color, with Latinas faring the […]

  68. […] earn just 76% of what men in the state earn, though that number varies bylocation within the state, race and ethnicity. The gender wage gap widens significantly more for women of color, with Latinas faring the […]

  69. […] US earn somewhere between 23% and 7% less than their male counterparts. Black and Latina women fare even worse, and the LGBT community suffers from similar disparities. It’s a scaffolded […]

  70. […] somewhere between 23% and 7% reduction than their masculine counterparts. Black and Latina women fare even worse, and a LGBT community suffers from identical disparities. It’s a scaffolded structure of […]

  71. […] the years, not much has changed. The wage gap for most women of color is significantly greater than it is for white women. Time and time again we hear that 70 cents to the man’s dollar statistic, but we less often hear […]

  72. […] a study used by the American Association of University Women (AAUW) shows that even with the same education as a white women, women of color are still likely to […]

  73. […] economy has suffered for it. Barring women, the LGBT community, non-white Americans, and all the intersections therein from the American Dream hasn’t kept it alive, it’s just shown how the promise of that […]

  74. […] Black women make only 64 percent of what white men make, according to The American Association of University Women, and advocacy group fighting for women’s equality through education and research. […]

  75. […] well” was very important to them, compared to just 54 percent of white women. Nationally, the pay gap between white women and black women is 14 percent. white women earn, on average, 14 percent more than black […]

  76. […] high!). And women still only make 77 cents for every dollar earned by their male counterparts – and that’s only for white people!” In regards to custody the author emphasizes the fact that courts are gender neutral and do […]

  77. […] between a husband/wife (I’m being hetero/cis-centric here) and the interplay between men and women in terms of compensation for their labor on the open market. I’m muddying them and that makes it hard to follow. It, err made sense in my head. (This is […]

  78. […] what white men are paid, while white (non-Hispanic) women are paid 87% of what white men are paid (x). Recognizing that different women face different issues is vital to the movement for gender […]

  79. […] [4] “How Does Race Affect the Gender Wage Gap?” AAUW Empowering Women Since 1881 How Does Race Affect the Gender Wage Gap Comments. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 June 2015. <http://www.aauw.org/2014/04/03/race-and-the-gender-wage-gap/&gt;. […]

  80. […] problems eradicate the issue of the wage gap? Not only do women generally earn less than men, but Black women tend to earn less than White women, White men and Black men. Compared with the 78 cents that White women earn to a White man’s dollar , Black women earn […]

  81. […] women — real ones — live at the nexus of that oppression and enduring sexism. The gender pay gap is steeper for them. They are more likely than their white counterparts to live in poverty, to be […]

  82. […] — live at the nexus of that oppression and enduring sexism. The gender pay gap is steeper for them. They are more likely than their white counterparts to live in […]

  83. […] African-American women and Latinas, the statistics on relative pay are even more dismal. An African-American woman can in general expect to make 36 percent less […]

  84. […] white women make 78% to a white man’s dollar in their professions, Black women make 64%. White people don’t grow up with a burden of what it’s like to be White in America. So […]

  85. […] wage gap is worsened when you take race into account. While in the US white women earn 77 cents to every man’s dollar, African American women earn […]

  86. […] a man earned. Since 2005, there has been no change in that figure. African-American women earn just 64% of what a white male earns, and Hispanic women just […]

  87. […] a man earned. Since 2005, there has been no change in that figure. African-American women earn just 64% of what a white male earns, and Hispanic women just […]

  88. […] a man earned. Since 2005, there has been no change in that figure. African-American women earn just 64% of what a white male earns, and Hispanic women just […]

  89. […] a man earned. Since 2005, there has been no change in that figure. African-American women earn just 64% of what a white male earns, and Hispanic women just […]

  90. […] a man earned. Since 2005, there has been no change in that figure. African-American women earn just 64% of what a white male earns, and Hispanic women just […]

  91. […] The evidence is clear. Trans women of color, including Black trans women, have an average life expectancy of 35 years and are the most impacted by severe unemployment – more than twice the national average. Black women make 64 cents to every 78 cents that a white woman makes to every dollar that a white man makes. […]

  92. […] for every dollar that Black men make, and only 64 cents for every dollar a white man makes (source here). And so many other […]

  93. […] trotted out fact that women make 77 cents on the dollar compared to men. But, were you aware that Black women make 64 cents on that same dollar, and Latina women only make 53 […]

  94. […] Black and Latina women get paid even less for that same dollar a white man makes. Please don’t see what you want to see. […]

Join the Conversation

You must be logged in to post a comment.